The Development and Validation of Maternal Spiritual Characteristics Scales

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The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a family counseling instrument that measures maternal spiritual characteristics. Particularly, the instrument aims to measure three domains of spirituality namely, Maternal Piety, Mercy and Accountability, that are considered as the characteristics for functional Muslim mothers. The study is designed into three phases. The first phase is a pilot study of a focus group from an Islamic Integrated Primary School (IIPS). In this phase Cronbach’s alpha is employed to assess the reliability index. Accordingly, Principle Component Analysis is employed to explore the underlying dimensions of Maternal Piety, Mercy and Accountability. The second phase is an ex-post facto study that involved 12 IIPS in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is utilized to examine the construct validity of the instrument. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used to investigate the relationship between maternal spiritual characteristics and mother-child attachment as supporting evidence for the criterion-related validity. The third phase is conducted to test the external validity of the instrument. In this phase, multistage cluster sampling technique is employed to select 200 students from each age groups of Form 1,2,3,4 and 5. The results provide evidence that the instrument achieved sound psychometrics properties. This instrument has succeeded the standard Cronbach’s alpha > .70 for internal consistency and proportion variance explained > 50 % for the dimensions of Maternal Piety , Mercy and Accountability . The goodness-of -fit measures GFI, AGFI, IFI, TLI, and CFI > .90 and RMSEA < .08 are evidences for construct validity. Moreover, the criterion-related validity is supported with the findings of significant positive relationship between maternal spiritual characteristics and mother-child attachment. In short, Maternal Spiritual Characteristics Scales (MSCS) is a reliable and valid instrument. Hence, it may be used for the assessment in family counseling and other related studies.


Keywords: Spirituality, Maternal Piety, Mercy, Accountability, Family Counseling, Validity, CFA, SEM.
Stream: Religion, Spirituality
Presentation Type: 30 minute Paper Presentation in English
Paper: The Development and Validation of Maternal Spiritual Characteristics Scales


Dr. Siti Aishah Hassan

Lecturer, Department of Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology, Faculty of Educational Studies, University Putra Malaysia
Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia


Dr. Abdullah Seif Abdullah

College of Humanities and Social Sciences, United Arab Emirates University
United Arab Emirates


Dr. Noriah Mohd Ishak

Associate Professor, Faculty of Education,, National University Malaysia
Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia


Prof. Dr. Hasan Langgulung

Professor, Institute of  Education, International Islamic University Malaysia
Gombak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Dr. Sidek Mohd. Noah

Deputy Dean Academic Affair, Department of Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology, Faculty of Educational Studies., University Putra Malaysia
Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia


Ref: H08P0434