Tracking of English Language Learners, Policies, and Educational Achievement
The paper is a literature review and analysis of tracking of English Language Learners (ELLs) and how this affects their educational achievement. The paper starts with a brief background on ELL population and discusses the different procedures that are followed in the placement of these students in different secondary schools. I critically examine several major tenets of Bourdieu’s theory, including his theory of practice, understandings of social and cultural capital, and habitus. Bourdieu’s theories of social and cultural capital explain how social class influences the transmission of educational variation. My analysis will include the discussion of educational policies that have been put into place by state and federal government to meet the increased needs of global economic competition as well as maintain authority by establishing reforms to improve. To support my argument I will draw primarily on New York State’s testing and graduation requirements for all students including ELLs and the federal government’s No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). In conclusion I provide recommendations for research in this area.
Keywords: English language learner, Bourdieu, Educational policy, NCLB
PhD Student, Teaching, Curriculum, and Change, Warner School of Education and Human Development, University of Rochester